Näiden kahden kerrostuman välinen jännite on hyvin merkittävä. Eräs yksityiskohta, jossa se näkyy on "alkumeren", suolaisen meren hahmo.
Enuma elish eepoksen vauhdikkaassa "Kulturkampf" (Gunkelin antama nimitys) kuvaa Apsûn puolison Tiamatin lopulta hirviömäisellä tavalla. Suurjumala Marduk hänet sitten hurjan taistelun jälkeen surmaa.
Sumerilaisesta uskonnon kerrostumasta Enuma elish eepoksen taustalla tämä sotainen ja julma, suorastaan hirviömäinen hahmo puuttuu täysin.
Rauhalliset naiset versus sotaiset miehet jumalina
Kaikki alkoi yhdestä miehestä, jota Tiamat kiinnosti!
Robert Graves considered Tiamat's death by Marduk as evidence of his hypothesis that a shift in power from a matriarchy controlling society to a patriarchy happened in the ancient past.
Grave's ideas were later developed into the Great Goddess theory by Marija Gimbutas, Merlin Stone and others. The theory suggests Tiamat and other ancient monster figures were presented as former supreme deities of peaceful, woman-centered religions that were turned into monsters when violent.
Their defeat at the hands of a male hero corresponded to the manner in which male-dominated religions overthrew ancient society.
This theory is rejected by academia and modern authors such as Lotte Motz, Cynthia Eller and others.
|R. Graves Greek Myths/|
The Greek Myths (1955) is a mythography, a compendium of Greek mythology, by the poet and writer Robert Graves, normally published in two volumes.
Each myth is presented in the voice of a narrator writing under the Antonines, such as Plutarch or Pausanias, with citations of the classical sources. The literary quality of these retellings is generally praised.
Each myth is followed by Graves' interpretation of its origin and significance, following his theories on a prehistoric Matriarchal religion as presented in his White Goddess and elsewhere. These theories and his etymologies are rejected by classical scholarship. Graves dismissed such criticism, arguing that by definition classical scholars lacked "the poetic capacity to forensically examine mythology".
Graves interpreted Bronze Age Greece as changing from a matriarchal society under the Pelasgians to a patriarchal one under continual pressure from victorious Greek-speaking tribes. In the second stage, local kings came to each settlement as foreign princes, reigned by marrying the hereditary queen, who represented the Triple Goddess, and were ritually slain by the next king after a limited period, originally six months. Kings managed to evade the sacrifice for longer and longer periods, often by sacrificing substitutes, and eventually converted the Queen, priestess of the Goddess, into a subservient and chaste wife, and in the final stage had legitimate sons to reign after them.
The Greek Myths presents the myths as stories from the ritual of all three stages, and often as historic records of the otherwise unattested struggles between the Greek Kings and the Moon-priestesses. In some cases, Graves conjectures a process of "iconotropy" or image-turning, by which a hypothetical cult image of the matriarchal or matrilineal period has been misread by later Greeks in their own terms. Thus, for example, he conjectures an image of divine twins struggling in the womb of the Horse-Goddess, which later gave rise to the Trojan Horse myth.
Marija Gimbutas on muokannut Gravesin ideaa tavalla, jolla on ollut varsin laajalle ulottuva vaikutus aikamme kulttuuriin.
|Marija Gimbutas (1921/1994)|
Marija Gimbutas (Lithuanian: Marija Gimbutienė; January 23, 1921 – February 2, 1994), was a Lithuanian-American archeologist known for her research into the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of "Old Europe" and for her widely accepted Kurgan hypothesis, which located the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Pontic Steppe.
Gimbutas's assertion that Neolithic sites in Lithuania and across Europe provided evidence for matriarchal pre-Indo-European societies was not well received in scholarly circles, but became a keystone of the Goddess movement.
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Teoria uskonnon kehityksestä Gravesin ja Gimbutasin kuvaamalla tavalla on joutunut sittemmin ankaran arvostelun kohteeksi.
|L.Motz The Faces of Goddes (Oxford 1997)|
To depict these earlier goddesses as peaceful and nurturing mothers, as is often done, is to deny them their own complex and sophisticated nature as beings who were often violent and vengeful, delighting in sacrifice, or who revelled in their eroticism and were worshipped as harlots. The idea of a nurturing Mother Goddess is very powerful. In this challenging book, however, Motz shows that She is a product of our own age, not of earlier ones. By discarding this simplistic and worn-out paradigm, we can open the door to a new way of thinking about feminine spirituality and religious experience.
Review of The Faces of Goddess by Lotte Motz (1963-2000).
|R. Eisler, Malja ja Miekka, historiamme, tulevaisuutemme (WSOY 1988)|
Amerikkalaisen radikaalin feminisin Riane Eislerin teos on tehnyt Suomessa tutuksi alunperin Robert Gravesin esittämän teorian uskonnon kehityksestä rauhallisesta naisjumalattaren vaiheesta veriseen ja sotaiseen indo-eurooppalaiseen uskontoon. "Kuinka kukaan voi palvoa ristillä roikkuvaa veristä miestä?"
|C. Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory (2000)|
Cynthia Eller The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why An Invented Past Will Not Give Women a Future, Beacon Press (2000)Cynthia Eller on puolestaan saanut arvostelua kirjastaan, joka "repii amerikkalaisen feminismin perusteita" ja olettaa ilman perusteluja, että "miehinen jumaluus" on aina ollut hallitseva jne.
Eller sets out to refute what she describes as feminist matriarchalism as an "ennobling lie".
She argues that the feminist archaeology of Marija Gimbutas had a large part in constructing a late twentieth-century feminist myth of matriarchal prehistory. She questions whether Gimbutas's archaeological findings adequately support the claim that these societies were matriarchal or matrifocal. She says that we know of no cultures in which paternity is ignored and that the sacred status of goddesses does not automatically increase female social status. Eller concludes that inventing prehistoric ages in which women and men lived in harmony and equality "is a burden that feminists need not, and should not bear." In her view, the "matriarchal myth" tarnishes the feminist movement by leaving it open to accusations of "vacuousness and irrelevance that we cannot afford to court."
|One version of the Spiral Goddess symbol of modern neopaganism|
kuva ja teksti wikipedia
Jumalatar-liike rakentaa varsin pitkälle meneviä johtopäätökisä ihmiskunnan elämästä ja uskonnoista päätyen uus-pakanuuteen.
The Goddess movement is an overall trend in religious or spiritual beliefs or practices which emerged from second-wave feminism, predominantly in North America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand in the 1970s. Spurred by centuries of male dominated organized religion (or a supreme deity referred to by masculine pronouns i.e. "he"), some women embraced the idea of a female deity that was more in keeping with feminist beliefs and the inherent value of women. A unifying theme of the movement was that the gender of deity characterizes the political gender-bias of the religion, so a Goddess Worshipping religion is held to be matriarchal and a "God" worshipping religion is held to be patriarchal.
Goddess beliefs can take many forms; some people in the Goddess movement recognize multiple goddesses. Some also include gods. While others honor what they refer to as "the Goddess", which is not necessarily seen as monotheistic, but is often understood to be an inclusive, encompassing term incorporating many goddesses in many different cultures. The term "the Goddess" may also be understood to include a multiplicity of ways to view deity personified as female, or as a metaphor, or as a process. (Christ 1997, 2003)
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Gravesin ja Jumalatar-liikkeen esittämä näkökulma naiseuden ja miehisyyden merkityksestä uskonnolle on mielestäni erittäin tärkeä. Keskustelu on tyypillistä heiluri-liikettä, kuten pitääkin, ja varmaan jossain vaiheessa löydetään konsensus, jossa Eislerin tapaiset ylilyönnit vältetään.
Muinaisen Mesopotamian Tiamat on siis tänään melkoisen ajankohtaisessa ja syvälle leikkaavassa seurassa ensimmäisenä ja vanhimpana esimerkkinä. Ero sumerilaisen ja vanha-babylonialaisen ajan välillä on aivan selvä, ja kutsuu selvittelemään Kaksoisvirtain maan historiaa Enuma elish eepoksen viitekehyksenä.